Glaucoma Risk Factors


Novita Angriani
Marliyanti N. R. Akib
Farah Ekawati Mulyadi
Sri Irmandha
Santriani Hadi
Rachmat Faisal Syamsu


Background: Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness for over 70 million people worldwide. Bilateral blindness occurs with an estimated 10%. In Indonesia, the prevalence of glaucoma is 0,46%. That means, that 4 to 5 out of 1.000 people suffer from glaucoma.

Content: The aim of this study was to analyze four risk factors that can affect the occurrence of glaucoma, namely age factor with diabetes and hypertension history, gender, family medical history, and race. This research used a literature review from 20 journals containing four risk factors for glaucoma. The results showed that diabetes and hypertension are often found in the elderly and that glaucoma symptoms can be exacerbated by increased intraocular pressure. Moreover, glaucoma patient with a positive family medical history of glaucoma has a higher value of intraocular pressure than glaucoma patients without a positive family medical history of glaucoma. Other results showed that men are more at risk because they have a different axial length than women, and Asians are considered riskier than Europeans because Asians’ awareness of eye health is very low.

Conclusion: Based on the review, four risk factors could greatly affect the occurrence of glaucoma.



1. Rayungsista A. Characteristics of Primary Glaucoma in Eye Clinic of RA Basoeni Hospital, Mojokerto, Indonesia. Folia Medica Indonesiana. 2018 Oct 12;54(3):172.
2. Sunderland S. Physiology, Aqueous Humor Circulation.
3. Schuster AK, Erb C, Hoffmann EM, Dietlein T, Pfeiffer N. The diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma. Deutsches Arzteblatt International. 2020 Mar 27;117(13):225–34.
4. Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementrian Kesehatan RI. infoDatin_glaukoma_2019.
5. Gálvez-Rosas A, Serrano-Miranda AT, Ridaura-Valencia C, Mundo-Fernández EE, Barojas-Weber E. Association of risk factors with primary open angle glaucoma in adults over the age of 40. Gaceta de Mexico. 2019 Jan 30;154(1).
6. Zhou M, Wang W, Huang W, Zhang X. Diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for open-angle glaucoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2014 Aug 19;9(8).
7. Zhao D, Cho J, Kim MH, Friedman D, Guallar E. Diabetes, glucose metabolism, and glaucoma: The 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PLoS ONE. 2014 Nov 13;9(11).
8. Kumar U, Kumar Sharma D, Author C. To Determine the Clinical Association between Glaucoma and Systemic Hypertension, as well as the Impact on Visual Morbidity.
9. Kuang TM, Xirasagar S, Kao YW, Shia BC, Lin HC. Association of Systemic Hypertension With Primary Open-angle Glaucoma: A Population-based Case-Control Study. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2020 Oct 1;218:99–104.
10. Deb A, Kaliaperumal S, Rao V, Sengupta S. Relationship between systemic hypertension, perfusion pressure and glaucoma: A comparative study in an adult Indian population. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2014 Sep 1;62(9):917–22.
11. Chua J, Chee ML, Chin CWL, Tham YC, Tan N, Lim SH, et al. Inter-relationship between ageing, body mass index, diabetes, systemic blood pressure and intraocular pressure in Asians: 6-year longitudinal study. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2019 Feb 1;103(2):196–202.
12. Khachatryan N, Pistilli M, Maguire MG, Salowe RJ, Fertig RM, Moore T, et al. Primary open-angle African American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) study: Gender and risk of POAG in African Americans. PLoS ONE. 2019 Aug 1;14(8).
13. Vinitha KR, Sreenivas SB. Gender difference in ocular pressures among prehypertensive individuals. International Journal of Current Research and Review. 2021 Jan 1;13(1):56–8.
14. Othman TM, Ahmed M, Hafez A, Hewady A. conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-SA) license ( Gender and Glaucoma: Findings from a Hospital-based Study in Upper Egypt [Internet]. Vol. 83, The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine. 2021. Available from:
15. Newman-Casey PA, Talwar N, Nan B, Musch DC, Pasquale LR, Stein JD. The potential association between postmenopausal hormone use and primary open-angle glaucoma. JAMA Ophthalmology. 2014;132(3):298–303.
16. Vajaranant TS, Maki PM, Pasquale LR, Lee A, Kim H, Haan MN. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Intraocular Pressure: The Women’s Health Initiative-Sight Exam Study. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2016 May 1;165:115–24.
17. O’Brien JM, Salowe RJ, Fertig R, Salinas J, Pistilli M, Sankar PS, et al. Family History in the Primary Open-Angle African American Glaucoma Genetics Study Cohort. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2018 Aug 1;192:239–47.
18. Rajendrababu S, Gupta N, Vijayakumar B, Kumaragurupari R, Krishnadas SR. Screening first degree relatives of persons with primary open angle glaucoma in India. Journal of Current Glaucoma Practice. 2014 Sep 1;8(3):107–12.
19. Kong X, Chen Y, Chen X, Sun X. Influence of family history as a risk factor on primary angle closure and primary open angle glaucoma in a Chinese population. Ophthalmic Epidemiology. 2011 Oct;18(5):226–32.
20. Chua PY, Day AC, Lai KL, Hall N, Tan LL, Khan K, et al. The incidence of acute angle closure in Scotland: A prospective surveillance study. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2018 Apr 1;102(4):539–43.
21. McCann P, Hogg R, Wright DM, Pose-Bazarra S, Chakravarthy U, Peto T, et al. Glaucoma in the Northern Ireland Cohort for the Longitudinal Study of Ageing (NICOLA): Cohort profile, prevalence, awareness and associations. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2020 Nov 1;104(11):1492–9.
22. Tham YC, Lim SH, Gupta P, Aung T, Wong TY, Cheng CY. Inter-relationship between ocular perfusion pressure, blood pressure, intraocular pressure profiles and primary open-Angle glaucoma: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases study. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2018 Oct 1;102(10):1402–6.
23. Chan EWE, Li X, Tham YC, Liao J, Wong TY, Aung T, et al. Glaucoma in Asia: Regional prevalence variations and future projections. Vol. 100, British Journal of Ophthalmology. BMJ Publishing Group; 2016. p. 78–85.